Dating clay pipes

A mold seam is present indicating that this piece comes from the back of the bowl (closest to the stem). Decorative molded pipe bowls like these became common after 1730 and were evolving into more elaborate forms after 1820. Though less likely, the steepness of the rear wall suggests that it might also be of several other types (10-14) that were in use between 17.

Following Oswald (1975), the morphology of this bowl fragment is suggestive of Type 13 (Thin, short bowls, flared mouth…flat spurs which after c. If the former match is correct, then the presences of a seam makes it likely that the pipe fragment was manufactured between 17.

A maker's marks is present on the spur in the form of a possible crab or sunburst in light relief.

A repeating pattern forming a line of leaves is present along the front of the bowl. A maker's marks is present on the spur in the form of an 'I' on one side and an 'N' on the other side in capitals placed horizontally in light relief.

The order of layers in this casemate from top to bottom runs from Layer 1 to Layer 12, inclusive.

Because the time span of the casemate under study is relatively short (about 50 years) dating of pipes has been done primarily on the evidence of makers' marks and names.

With the exception of the Dutch bowls, all bowls from which the shape could be deduced appeared to be basically of Oswald's type 9 (Oswald 1961: 60, 61).

This type of bowl seems to have been the result of the influence of a Dutch pipe type — brought over by the troops of William III at the time of the English Revolution in 1668 — on the traditional barrel-shaped English pipe bowl.

Oswald dates this type to about 1680-1730, noting that in England it occurs in the West Country (that is, the Bristol area) and in London and the Home Counties.